Super Hiding Files Using Command Prompt

 Super hidden files won’t be visible to end user even though the unhide files option is enabled. You can create a file using cmd to perform this action

1. Open command prompt with elevated privileges (ie, right clickon it and run as administrator) and type the below code
attrib +h +s
“h” is for hiding and “s” is for making it as system file.
2. Copy the file location and paste it in the command prompt.
Hint: Right click and take properties of the file. There you will get its location

Here location of the folder“photos” is D:\Documents\College

3. Now, copy the location right click and choose paste to paste it in the Command prompt.
You have to add \photos at the end of above location to point to original folder as below

4. Hit enter. Now your folder is super hided!
You can hide specific images, documents etc by this method. for that you should use its extension at the end like imagename.jpg
How to unhide?
Its simple. Just change “+” with “-” in the above code as shown below
attrib +h +s D:\Documents\College\photos
This method doesnot hide your folder completely. To view this superhidden files, untick the option “Hide protected operating system files” from folder options.

Friday by Gyan Mainali · 0


Password Protect Folder Using Batch Script

Hey, fascinating and helpful protecting your folders with Password without using any third party software with full control over command prompt (CMD).

Still there are other ways available for you to protect your folders, some of them they charge for premium service before you could actually make full use of those softwares.

Steps involved:

1. Open Notepad and Copy code given below into it.

Password used it winadmin (see-> if NOT %pass%==).

2. Save the file as Close.bat (.bat is must)
3. Now double click on lClose.bat and a new folder will be created with name MyFolder
4. Copy all your data you want to protect in that New folder
5. Now double click on Close.bat and when command promp appears Type Y and press enter.
6. Now MyFolder will be hidden from you view, to access that folde double click on Close.bat
7. It will ask for password enter your password and done.

Note: To change the password replace winadmin with new password in the above code

Cheers !

Thursday by Gyan Mainali · 0


Force Your Pc To Use 100% Of Available Bandwidth

Transmission capacity is typically controlled by your Internet Service Provider (ISP). At times there are programming components that impact your web association speed. Where such component is QoS (Quality of Service), for instance Windows Update, gushing features or sound, Voip applications, and so forth – anything that makes utilization of the QoS Packet Scheduler.

The reservation is 20% in Windows Xp, Vista & 7 and it is 80% on windows 8 and most recent forms. We have the choice to cripple this saved data transfer capacity to become acquainted with 100% of your data transmission. Be that as it may, please observe that the 20% saved data transfer capacity is just utilized when QoS applications need it. By arranging its setting in the Group Policy, you can undoubtedly constrain the reservable data transmission.

1. Open Run or cmd window and type gpedit.msc and press enter on your keyboard.

2. Now Local Group Policy Editor will open and navigate to Computer Configuration -> Administrative -> Network -> Qos Packet Scheduler.

3. Double click on Limit Reservable bandwidth. It will say it is not configured, but the truth is under the ‘Explain’ tab. i.e.”By default, the Packet Scheduler limits the system to 80 percent of the bandwidth of a connection, but you can use this setting to override the default”. Click too ENABLE reservable bandwidth, then set it to 0 (ie. 0%).

4. Restart your PC to effect the changes

Using Windows regisrty:
1. Open Run or cmd window and type regedit in the search box and press Enter on your keyboard.
2. In Regedit click your way through HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows
3. Right click on the Windows map and select New and Key from the dropdown menu and name the new mapPsched
4. Double-click on the new Psched map and right click in the empty white screen on the right
5. Select New and DWORD (32-bit) Value from the dropdown menu
6. Name the new Dword Value NonBestEffortLimit
7. Right-click on your new NonBestEffortLimit key and select Modify from the dropdown menu
8. In the Value Data field make sure the value is 0 so the reserved bandwidth percentage is set to 0%.
9. Click OK and restart your PC to make the changes

Cheers !

Tuesday by Gyan Mainali · 0


How to disable APIPA(Automatic Private IP Address)

Before to get started with how to disable APIPA, its better to understand what is APIPA?

Short for Automatic Private IP Addressing, a feature of later Windows operating systems. With APIPA, DHCP clients can automatically self-configure an IP address and subnet mask when a DHCP server isn't available. When a DHCP client boots up, it first looks for a DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address and subnet mask.
If the client is unable to find the information, it uses APIPA to automatically configure itself with an IP address from a range that has been reserved especially for Microsoft. The IP address range is through The client also configures itself with a default class B subnet mask of A client uses the self-configured IP address until a DHCP server becomes available.

The APIPA service also checks regularly for the presence of a DHCP server (every five minutes, according to Microsoft). If it detects a DHCP server on the network, APIPA stops, and the DHCP server replaces the APIPA networking addresses with dynamically assigned addresses.

From last few days I am facing issue of my broadband connection, my laptop is not getting IP from DHCP server. Instead it taking IP of 169.254.* range (APIPA) so below is my solution to resolve the issue by disabling APIPA.

Disable APIPA

1. Open regedit from run.

2. Now go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tcpip\Parameters
3. And create new DWORD (32 Bit) Value and give it name as “IPAutoconfigurationEnabled” and value must be 00000000.

4. Close the regedit window and restart you client system.

You will never get IP of 169.254.* range of you once you disabled you APIPA.

Thursday by Prashant Shalgar · 0


Disk Management | Windows Operating System Basis and Dynamic Disk management

Disk Management
Basic Disks:
Basic Disk only works with Partitions.
Most common storage types used with Windows Operating Systems., with Basic Partition you can create Primary, Extended or Logical Drives., you can also say it’s the Original disk.

In Basic Disk If a drive (ex: E: Drive) is used up we can format the drive without any issues and recreate the File System and data.

Dynamic Disks: Dynamic Disks works with Volumes.

It provides features which Basic Disk do not support., like the ability to create volumes that cover multiple disks.
Types of Dynamic Volumes:

Simple Volume: This can be extended.
Spanned Volumes: It can consists of upto 32 disks.
Striped Volumes: It can consists of upto 32 disks. ( RAID 0 ) [Block by block striping]
Mirrored: It only consists of two disks ( RAID 1 ) [Block by block mirroring]
Striped with Parity: It can consists of upto 32 disks. (RAID 5 )

Simple Volumes:
Simple volume is a kind of dynamic disk volume.

Spanned Volumes: If one disk goes down all files are lost & whole library goes unavailable. It utilizes one disk at a time and when it fills it movies to the other disks.

Striped Volumes: Condition -> All disk should be of same size.
It utilizes all available disk at a time, still performance will be of 1 Disk times total disks., same as Spanned volumes if 1 disk fails whole library goes down.

Mirrored Volumes: Condition -> Disk should be of same size.
This is a fault tolerant volume, it makes use of two disk and it writes the same file to two disks., you can attach both disk to a controller drive (SCSI Controller ) two controller attaches to each drive for fault tolerant.

Striped Volumes: RAID 5
It writes a file to 3 disks (Ex: 1st Disk, 2nd Disk & 3rd Disk) and saves a parity information to another disk. So when a disk falls all the data will be reconstructed using parity checksum.
Difference between Basic Disk and Dynamic Disk.

Basic Disk
Dynamic Disk
Industry Standard, Primary partition can be read by Unix/Linux.
Logical Disk Manager, easy to transfer disk to another server.
Single drive
Unlimited volumes
Laptops / Removable
Flexible volumes.

Adding and Breaking Mirrored Disks:

You can make use of Command line utility “Diskpart”, run Command prompt with admin privilege:
and type-> DISKPART
DISKPART> Select Volume D:
Output: Volume 2 is the selected volume.
DISKPART>add disk3
Diskpart complete in adding a mirror to the volume.
DISKPART>break disk2 (will break)
DISKPART>break disk3 nokeep (this will delete the mirror)

Steps to Convert MBR disk to GPT disk:
Run Command prompt with admin privilege:

Microsoft DiskPart version 6.1.7601
Copyright (C) 1999-2008 Microsoft Corporation.
On computer: Winadmin-LPT
DISKPART> list disk
  Disk ###  Status         Size     Free     Dyn  Gpt
  --------  -------------  -------  -------  ---  ---
  Disk 0    Online          465 GB  1024 KB
DISKPART> select disk 0
Disk 0 is now the selected disk.
DISKPART> list partition
  Partition ###  Type              Size     Offset
  -------------  ----------------  -------  -------
  Partition 1    Primary            100 MB  1024 KB
  Partition 2    Primary             65 GB   101 MB
  Partition 3    Primary            100 GB    65 GB
  Partition 0    Extended           300 GB   165 GB
  Partition 4    Logical            300 GB   165 GB
DISKPART> select partition 0
Partition 0 is now the selected partition.
DISKPART> delete partition
DISKPART> convert gpt

Disk checking utilities:
1. System File Checker tool (SFC.exe)
CMD> sfc /scannow
2. Check Disk from a Command Line to Check for and fix Disk Errors
CMD> chkdsk /f /r
/F       Fixes errors on the disk.
/R       Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information (implies /F).

Tata Consultancy Services Interview Question:
How many primary partition you can have in Basic Disk?
Ans -> You can have 4 primary partition in Basic Disk, or 3 primary partition and 1 extended partition or logical partition.

Saturday by Gyan Mainali · 0


How to make laptop as a WiFi hotspot

This is amazing trick to create WiFi hotspot network using you laptop or PC (Need WiFi Card).

Step by Step procedure to create WiFi Hotspot.
  1. Make sure that you have working internet connection to your laptop.
  2. Turn on your WiFi Network
  3. Go to Network and Sharing Center and click on "Change adapter settings"
  4. And Note the Name of you WiFi network adapter.In my case its "Wi-Fi"
  5. And Open the properties window by right clicking on you internet adapter card (your network adapter name could be "Ethernet Or Local Area Connection")
  6. On Sharing tab choose "Allow other network users to connect through this computer's Internet Connection" and select the WiFi adapter name that you have noted in step 4 and click OK.
  7. Open Command Prompt as administrator (Evaluated Command Prompt)
  8. Now type Below Commands 
netsh wlan set hostednetwork mode=allow ssid="XYZ" key=Password 

(at XYZ give the desire name that your WiFi Hotspot will show while connecting and Type desire password in place of "Password")

netsh wlan start hostednetwork

netsh wlan show hostednetwork

I have created one batch script for this commands, you can download it here and right click Run As Administrator

Note - 
     You have to  run this commands or script every time whenever you turn off and start your system.

Sunday by Prashant Shalgar · 0


Download Windows 10 Technical Preview ISO with Product Key

Follow these steps to download Technical Preview:

Sign up for the Windows Insider Program, if you haven't already.

Read the system requirements.

Click one of the Download links on this page to download a special
file—it's called an ISO file—that you can use to install the preview.

When the download is complete, transfer the ISO file to installation
media such as a USB flash drive or DVD.
Double-tap or double-click setup.exe from the installation media,
and then follow the steps.


Language English (United States)


Windows 10 Technical Preview (x64)

(3.92 GB)

SHA-1 hash value 6A95316728299D95249A29FBEB9676DED23B8BEB

Windows 10 Technical Preview (x86)

(3.01 GB)

SHA-1 hash value 1AE10947CC297AE299E1C81F95812EFBB5C84121

Wednesday by Prashant Shalgar · 0

Active Directory Components

The name for Microsoft directory service, similar to Novell’s NDS (Novell Directory Service). It is the Brian of the Windows Server Network. It’s a database that keeps track of a huge amount of stuff and gives us a centralized way to manage all our Networked machines, users, and resources.


  • A Database (NTDS.DIT) on a domain controller.
  • Based on X.500/LDAP.
  • Utilizes Kerberos.
  • Sync’s across peer DC’s (Replication).
  • Extensible
  • Interoperates with other domains/forests.

What is the basic requirement for Installing Active Directory?

- Server 2003,2008 or 2012 CD/ISO.
- NTFS file system (Partition)
- NIC Plugged into network.
- TCP/IP configured along with proper DNS if already available.
- Initiate DCPromo in Server 2003, 2008 but same is deprecated in Windows server 2012. you can use Server Manager to install or fire the binaries using Powershell.

Note: DCPromo launches the wizard that sets up Active Directory and promotes a Server to Domain Controller.


It expresses that every domain has exactly one parent, leading to its hierarchical structure.

And a bunch of Active Directory trees forms a forest.


A collection of computers and servers that are part of the same Centralized database.


Centralized User/Group authentication: The ability to log on one time and access resources throughout the domain.

Centralized Security: The ability to control the user/computer environment, from one computer across the whole network.

Searchable Database: Easily extending database which hosts resources including users, computers, shared folders, printers and more.

Very Scalable: Meant for both small and large organizations.

Required to reap all the benefits of Windows Server (2003, 2008 & 2012) and other Microsoft software products i.e., Microsoft Exchange which completely relies on Active Directory database.

Domain Controller:

A domain controller is a windows server machine that runs full-fledged Active Directory Domain services, you can have multiple domain controllers that all have copies of the same Active Directory database.

A domain controller usually has only two roles:

  • Active Directory Domain Services
  • DNS ( Domain Name System)


A windows server domain is a logical group of computers running version of the Microsoft windows operating system that share a central directory database. Machines are all named with a part of a domain name like “” (also called a “Suffix”) and are registered in the Active Directory Database so they can be managed.

Organization Units:

Keeping your objects Organized and are used to control what users and computers can and can’t do. It provides a place for User accounts, Computer accounts and groups to live.

It is used in place of creating multiple domains in an organization.

A container object that gives you more granular control over your environment.


  • Delegation of Authority (Permission)
  • Assigning Group Policy
  • Organization Control


They are Active Directory objects that allow you to provide and deny access to resources like Printers and Shared folders. Allows or denies access to network resources for users and computers.

Groups live in Organizational Units.

Group Scope Group Type
Domain Local Security
Global Distribution

A global group can be converted to local for permission and security granting purpose & vice-versa.

User Account:

An Active Directory Object that allows users to access network resources.

Computer Account:

And Active Directory object that allows AD to have security relationship within a computer and allows you to control what that computer does on the network.

Distinguished Name:

It’s the name of an object as it appears in the active directory database.



by Gyan Mainali · 0

Windows Admin Jobs in Pune